It has been placed in everyday surgical practice from the beginning of the 1990s, applied for the first time in France. It is a surgical technique, which slightly injures the abdominal wall, allowing the realization of virtually all operations of digestive surgery (and not only) with minimal postoperative pain, rapid postoperative recovery and many times more accurate than that in classic open way.
Anesthesia in laparoscopic surgery is always general.
The first step: the creation of a pneumoperitoneum. With a very thin needle is inserted into the abdomen an inert gas (carbon dioxide) until we get to a pressure 12 to 14 mm of mercury.
The second step: from small holes of few millimeters, we insert the laparoscopic tools, which include a high definition camera, watching on a screen very accurately the contents of the abdomen, we perform the surgery in the same way, if not with greater precision than that in the open way.
The surgeon holds the unalienable right to convert a laparoscopic procedure to an open one, if it is considered necessary during the surgery that the patient's safety or efficacy of the surgical act are at stake with the laparoscopic method. A wide variety of digestive diseases is treated by a surgical and laparoscopic way as:
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease, which is responsible for a very poor quality of life of the patient (esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus).
- Benign and malignant diseases of the stomach.
- The diseases of bile and bile duct.
- Benign and malignant diseases (cancer) of the small and large intestines.
- The appendectomy.
- The various hernias.
- The diseases involving the static pelvic with rectal prolapse.
- Most gynecological surgery.
They are also done the laparoscopic splenectomy , the nephrectomy, as well as the removal of adrenal tumors.
Absolute contraindications to the laparoscopic method involving intracranial hypertension, pulmonary emphysema, various intracardiac communications, heart failure.
Relative contraindications, which are in preparation and proper measures can be overcome, concerning glaucoma ischemic or hypertensive heart disease, aortic stenosis, severe respiratory failure with permanent hypercapnia and history of a stroke.
Laparoscopy has complications, which are related to the method, which in experienced hands are predictable and can be easily avoided.